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Scripture Reading: 2 Corinthians 3:12-16

Relationships of the Old and New Covenants



1.  Covenant: Agreement; A solemn obligation bound by the superior (God) upon the inferior (man), Deut. 4:13, 23.

2.  The veil that shrouded the Jewish heart still hardens men against the fact that the OT (covenant) is no longer in force, 2 Cor. 3:12-16.

3.  Must not ignore the relationship of the Old and New Testaments.

  a.  Proper use of Scripture (OT), proper respect for and application of Bible authority (2 Tim. 2:15; Matt. 28:18, 20).

  b.  That our hope of salvation is based upon the proper covenant.



  A.  The New Covenant Would be Distinct from the Old Covenant.

    1.  The days come (not then present), 31:31.

    2.  Not like Sinai, 31:32 (Heb. 8:6-9).

    3.  Nature of new covenant (better), 31:33-34.

  B.  Christ’s Death Dedicated the New Covenant, Heb. 9:15-17.

    1.  He fulfilled the law (Matt. 5:17; cf. Rom. 10:4).

    2.  He took away the first (Col. 2:14-15; Eph. 2:14-15).

    3.  He established the second (Heb. 10:9).



  A.  Old and New, Heb. 8:13 (Jer. 31:31).

    1.  Jeremiah’s prophecy made the first covenant obsolete.

    2.  The first covenant was not designed to last forever.

  B.  Moses and Jesus Christ, Jno. 1:17 (Gal. 3:19; Heb. 9:15).

    1.  We must hear the authority of Jesus today, not Moses, Matt. 17:3-5; Acts 3:22-23.

    2.  Your soul hangs in the balance, Acts 3:23.

  C.  Written on Stone and Written on Hearts, 2 Cor. 3:3; Heb. 8:10-11.

    1.  While some who lived under the old law put it in their hearts (Psa. 119:11), the nation of Israel hardened its heart and rebelled against it (God), Heb. 8:9; Zech. 7:12.

    2.  Under the new covenant, only those who take God’s law (gospel) into their hearts will be His people (Heb. 8:10-11).

  D.  Temporary and What Remains, 2 Cor. 3:7-11.

    1.  Contrast here is between the glory of each covenant.

      a.  Glory of the old was passing away, 3:7 (13).

      b.  Glory of the new exceeds the old and remains, 3:8-11 (is the glory of Christ, 4:4).

    2.  Old covenant done away in Christ, 3:14.

  E.  The High Priests of the Covenants, Heb. 7:23-28.

    1.  Priests serve men in things pertaining to God, Heb. 5:1.

    2.  The superiority of our High Priest is evidence that the new covenant is “better” (7:21-22).

    3.  Our high priest accomplishes what OT priest never did.

  F.  The Sacrifices of the Covenants, Heb. 9:25-10:18.

    1.  Man needs a sacrifice for his sins to satisfy the law of sin and death (i.e., when you sin, you die).

    2.  Old covenant didn’t offer perfect forgiveness; New covenant does (remission, 10:18); “faulty,” Heb. 8:7-8; cf. Gal. 3:21-22.

  G.  Shadow and Substance, Col. 2:16-17; Heb. 10:1.

    1.  Shadow is an outline of the true substance; not the substance.

    2.  Old covenant shadowed what Christ would do (has done) – cf. Its authority, duration, glory, priesthood, and sacrifices.       

    3.  Salvation is not based on a shadow.



1.  Both covenants are from God, but we are only under one covenant (2 Tim. 3:15-16).

2.  But our salvation is through the new covenant of Christ, not the old covenant that was done away.

3.  Our authority is the new covenant, not the old (Matt. 17:5).

4.  Our hope is based on the new covenant, not the old.



By: Joe R. Price

Posted February 8, 2021