Scripture Reading: 1 John 4:1-6
The Religion of Islam
1. “Islam, began in Mecca, claimed to be the revelation of God (Allah) through the angel Gabriel to a man named Muhammad. Muhammad was born in approximately AD 570-571” (A Brief History of Islam, Reiber, http://www.islamunveiled.info/history.html).
2. About 1/6 of the earth’s population are Muslims (Moslems).
3. Until recently, most Americans have had little contact with members of the Islamic faith, & know little or nothing about it; but 9/11 has changed all that.
I. FACTS ABOUT ISLAM.
1. About 1.2 billion Muslims worldwide.
2. World’s fasting growing religion, increasing 2.9% annually
a. Islam is the dominate religion in 45 countries (most Arabs are Muslims but most Muslims are not Arabs. Indonesia has more Muslims than any other nation).
b. Estimated 7 million Muslims in the U.S.
c. England: Now more Muslims in England than there are people in the churches in England on Sunday (Monroy, 342; cited by Needham, “The Religion of Islam #1)
B. Muslim Vocabulary (terminology).
1. Islam: Root word means “peace” (salaam); It means “submission to the One God.”
“It means submission to the One God, as well as to live in harmony with other people and with the environment. A Muslim is, therefore, any person, anywhere in the world, whose obedience, allegiance and loyalty are to God, Lord of the Universe, and who strives to live in accordance with God’s laws.” (StudyIslam.com)
2. Muslim: “A submitting one”; adherents of Islam are “Muslims” (Moslems).
“A Muslim is one who believes that ‘there is no god but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God” (Understanding Islam, Lippman, 1)
3. Allah: “Allah is the name of the One and Only God” (supposedly the name of the God of Abraham).
“Allah is the name of the One and Only God. Allah has ninety-nine beautiful names, such as: The Gracious, the Merciful, the Beneficent, The Creator, The All-Knowing, the All-Wise, The Lord of the Universe, The First, The Last, and many others.
“He is the Creator of all human beings. He is the God for the Christians, the Jews, the Muslims, the Buddhists, the Hindus and all others, including those who do not even believe in Him. Muslims worship God, and put their trust in Him as they seek His help and guidance.” (Introduction to Islam, StudyIslam.com)
4. Muhammad (ca. 570-632): Last Prophet / final Messenger of God (see below for more).
a. Illiterate, 12 or 13 wives, religious & military leader.
b. To the Muslim, much more: Messenger of Allah.
5. The Qur’an (Koran): “Recite” or “recitation;” God supposedly gave this holy book to Muhammad who “recited” it.
“The Koran purports to be the successor & continuation of the Jewish and Christian scriptures, incorporating their teachings in a new revelation that gave the people of Arabia an enlightenment previously accorded only to Jews and Christians.” (Lippman, 57)
a. The Qur’an is divine scripture in Islam; Taken as the literal word of God.
b. The standard text has existed unchanged in its original idiom since the 7th century.
c. Purpose: To bring an understanding of the one true God to the pagan polytheistic Arabians.
d. None written or compiled during Muhammad’s lifetime.
e. Supposedly given by God to Muhammad in Arabic; cannot accurately or actually be translated into another language; learning Arabic, they say, is key to reading the Qur’an.
f. The Qur’an defines itself:
It is “a book in which all things are written.” (50:4)
It is “a scripture revealed since the time of Moses, confirming previous scriptures and directing to the truth and to the straight path.” (46:30)
It is “no invented tale, but a confirmation of previous scriptures, an explanation of all things, a guide and a blessing to true believers.” (12:111)
It “could not have been composed by any but Allah. It confirms what was revealed before and it fully explains the scriptures. It is beyond doubt from the Lord of the Creation.” (10:37) (Lippman, 63-64)
a. All truth given to apostles 600 years before Qur’an – Jno. 16:13.
b. The faith was fully delivered to the saints – Jude 3.
c. Apostles words confirmed as the straight path – Heb. 2:3-4 (1 Cor. 14:37; 2 Jno. 9).
d. Not cunningly devised fables; inspired by Holy Spirit – 2 Pet. 1:16, 21.
e. NT scriptures fully equip mankind – 2 Tim. 3:16-17.
f. NT gospel went to Arabia, but apparently rejected or later perverted – Mk. 16:15 (cf. Acts 2:11; 1:8; Gal. 1:16-17; Col. 1:23).
g. Qur’an is not from God! – Gal. 1:6-10
C. Sources of Islamic Doctrine & Practice.
1. Qur’an: Fundamental, immutable source.
2. Other books: Sunnah (“path”) & Hadith.
“The legal sources of Islam are the Qur’an and the Hadith. The Qur’an is the exact words of God; its authenticity, originality and totality are intact. The Hadith are the reports of the sayings, deeds and approvals of the Prophet Muhammad. The Prophet’s sayings and deeds are called Sunnah.” (Introducing Islam, Dr. Sakr)
a. “Muslims accept the Sunnah as equivalent to the Qur’an, the Book of Allah (God), and its ordinances are of equal weight to the ordinances of the Qur’an. This is because both the Qur’an and Sunnah are from Allah.” (It Is Reported That The Prophet Said…, IslamOnline.net)
b. “The way of the Prophet, his example & teaching as expressed in his deeds & words. These words of Muhammad (as opposed those God uttered by Muhammad in the Koran) are recorded in the hadith (pronounced ha-DEETH), compilations of his utterances on religious practice, social affairs, and Koranic interpretation.” (Lippman, 4)
a. Jesus has all authority – Matt. 28:18 (Col. 3:17).
b. Receive Him & the Father by receiving those He sent – Jno. 13:20.
c. His apostles wrote the commands of the Lord – 1 Cor. 14:37.
d. Hold fast what they taught – 2 Ths. 2:15.
e. Any other teaching is not from God & under curse – Gal. 1:8-9.
D. Islam the Only True Religion.
“The Religion in the sight of Allah is Islam.” (Qur’an 3:19)
-In another verse of the Holy Qur’an, Allah states:
“If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (Submission to Allah), Never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (their selves in the hell fire).” (Qur’an 3:85) (http://www.islamworld.net/become.html)
-Christ is from God, & Christianity the only true religion (not Islam):
• “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me.” (Jno. 14:6)
• No other name for salvation, Acts 4:12
• God glorified in the name Christian, Acts 11: 26; 1 Pet. 4:16-19
–The righteous are Christians, not Muslims
–All others are “ungodly” & sinners
E. How to Become a Muslim.
1. “To become Muslim, you have to pronounce the Testimony of Faith ‘Shahada’, with sincere faith.” (How to Become Muslim, http://nadeem.lightuponlight.com/howtobecomemuslim.html)
2. “I bear witness that there is no God except Allah, and I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”
3. Repeat the Shahada it in Arabic.
4. Learn & live the pillars of Islam.
-BIBLE: Faith in Jesus Christ (Jno. 8:24), Confess faith (Matt. 10:32), Repent (Acts 17:30), Be baptized into Christ (Acts 2:38).
II. ORIGIN & SPREAD OF ISLAM.
A. Muhammad (ca. 570-632): Last Prophet / final Messenger of God.
“Muhammad is the very last Prophet of God to mankind. He is the final Messenger of God. His message was and is still to all of mankind, including the Christians and Jews. He was sent to those religious people to inform them about the true mission of Jesus, Moses, David, Jacob, Isaac and Abraham.
“Muhammad is considered to be the summation and culmination of all the prophets and messengers that came before him. He purified the previous messages from adulteration and completed the Message of God for all humanity. He was entrusted with the power of explaining, interpreting and living the teachings of the Qur’an. (Introducing Islam, Dr. Sakr)
“Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) is the best among all the creation of Allah. He has superiority over all human beings, including all the messengers and the prophets of Allah. Allah Himself says in the Qur’an: [Those Messengers, We gave superiority to some over the others] (Al-Baqarah 2:253). Prophet Muhammad is also reported to have said in a number of authentic hadiths, “I am the leader of all the children of Adam, but I do not boast about it.” Allah gave Prophet Muhammad this honor. All prophets were sent to their own people for their own time (Ibrahim 14:4), but Prophet Muhammad was sent to all people for all time to come (Saba’ 34:28). Allah sent Prophet Muhammad as a mercy to all the worlds (Al-Anbiyaa’ 21:107); no other prophet or messenger of Allah was given this honor.” (Dr. Muzammil H. Siddiqi, Superiority of Prophet Muhammad, IslamOnline.net)
-Jesus Christ is preeminent over all – Col. 1:18; Phil. 2:9-11.
1. Early life of Muhammad.
a. Born Ubu’l Kassim (AD 570-632) in Arabia to powerful tribe of Quraish in Mekkah (Mecca). Father was Abdullah; mother’s name was Aminah.
b. Abdullah was a merchant who died on a caravan trip, leaving Ubu’l fatherless at birth; Mother died by age of 6; Taken in by grandfather, who died at age 8.
c. Abu Talib (uncle), one of the leaders of the Quraish tribe, took him in & reared him.
d. Successful in family business; Oversaw trading caravan of a wealthy widow named Khadijah, who was so impressed with him that she proposed marriage to him. They had 6 children (2 boys, 4 girls); both boys died early in life.
2. Messages from God.
a. Life of leisure…self-made philosopher…trips into the desert & mountains…meditation on condition of civilization…personal mission to find “truth.”
b. 42 years old (AD 612): Cave on Mt. Nur, during month of Ramadan (a pagan festival), he received his first visitation from Gabriel & recited verses found in Qur’an 96:1-5:
“Proclaim thou in the name of thy Lord Who created, Created man from a clot of blood. Proclaim! and thy Lord is the Most Bounteous; Who taught by the pen, Taught man what he knew not.”
c. Took the name, Muhammad (“highly praised”) as a result of his visions.
d. His was a message of one God against the paganism & idolatry of his day.
3. Messenger of Allah: From persecuted to ruler.
a. At first he shared his new revelations only with family & close friends; Next 3 years Muhammad’s message began to spread in Mekkah, esp. among the youth.
b. Instructed by Allah to go public with his message & openly condemn the paganism & idolatry of Mekkah.
c. His message became an economic threat; Organized opposition to Muhammad & Islam began. Initially, Islam was politically weak & many Muslims died for their faith.
d. 622: 70 people in Madinah (Medina) pledge loyalty to protect Muhammad; Turning point; Goes there & expands power for next 8 years, becoming a religious, political & military leader.
e. Began to spread Islam by intimidation & force; threats of war converted entire tribes.
f. 630: Returned to Mekkah with 10,000 troops & imposed Islam without resistance.
g. Continued to rule his kingdom from Madinah, died in 632 (63 years old).
h. Islam continued to spread through Middle East, Africa & Europe until the Battle of Tours in France in 732; Asia & islands of the southwest Pacific Ocean.
a. God speaks to all mankind in His Son, Jesus Christ (Heb. 1:1-2).
b. Full revelation from God – no more prophets (Jno. 16:13; 1 Cor. 13:8-10).
c. God’s kingdom is not of this world – Jno. 18:36; Lk. 17:20-21.
d. God’s kingdom is not advanced by the sword – Matt. 26:51-52 (Isa. 2:3-4).
B. Spread of Islam into a World Religion.
1. Succession of leaders after death of Muhammad.
a. Led by caliphs / Caliphate (caliph, successor to the prophet) – 4 companions of Muhammad led for 28 years; then Caliphates arose (political divisions & dynasties).
1) Abu Bakr (father-in-law & long time friend): 2 years; consolidated Islamic influence over the entire Arabian Peninsula.
2) Umar (634-644): Expanded Islamic rule to Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt & Persia. Wore the title: “Commander of the faithful.”
3) Othman & Ali.
4) Most prominent religious division around 660: Shiites & Sunnites.
b. Divisions in Islam:
-Over who would be the legitimate successor of Muhammad.
-Before Muhammad died he supposedly appointed Ali (his cousin & son-in-law) to be his successor; after his death the Shiites wanted to accept his choice, but the Sunnis wanted to follow Abu Bakr, Muhammad’s scribe.
1) Sunnis (insists on “sunna”, the way); they accept the first four Caliphs (successors) (including Ali) as the “rightly guided” rulers who followed the Prophet. Majority of Muslims are Sunni today.
2) Shiites (“helpers of Ali”; “separatists”); Minority of Muslims are Shiites (about 10-15%).
a) Legitimate successor through Muhammad was Ali.
b) Considered fundamentalist, although Sunnis & Shiites hold common core beliefs.
III. SOME ISLAMIC DOCTRINES.
A. The Oneness of God.
Surah 112 (The Unity):
In the name of Allah, the Beneficient, the Merciful
1. Say : He is Allah, the one!
2. Allah, the eternally Besought of all!
3. He begetteth not nor was begotten.
4. And there is none comparable unto Him.
“Islam teaches that Allah is not to be likened to anything which He has created. He is All-Powerful, All-Knowing; He is beyond any imperfection, and is the fulfillment of all Perfection. He is not a substance, nor is He like any of His creatures. He is not a far away and distant God, nor is He an unapproachable ideal. He is All-Kind, All Merciful, and All-Compassionate.
“Islam teaches that Allah is eternal. He was not Himself begotten, nor has He, in turn begotten a son or a daughter. Islam rejects the concept of the incarnation of God, which is found in Hinduism, Christianity, and other religions, and believes that the concept of incarnation limits the concept of God and destroys the believer’s conviction of God’s Activeness and Perfection. (“How to Become a Muslim,” The Islamic Bulletin, www.islamicbulletin.org/howtohtm.htm)
a. Only one God in contrast to paganism – 1 Cor. 8:4-6; Acts 17:23.
b. One (united); Godhead – Deut. 6:4 (Rom. 1:20).
c. God became flesh – Jno. 1:1-3, 14.
1. Islam: Not the Son of God (deity, Messiah).
“Islam rejects the notion that Jesus, peace be upon him, was the son of God. Rather it honors and respects him as one of the great messengers and prophets of Allah to the Children of Israel.”
“Islam rejects the concept of trinity and considers it a contradiction of pure monotheism. It also rejects the argument of some Christians that God made Himself incarnate in Jesus, peace be upon him, so that God could be known by men, and also rejects the argument that Jesus, peace be upon him, died on the cross for mankind’s sins. To begin with, Islam believes that man can come to know Allah and feel close to Him by means of proper prayer, fasting, charity, pilgrimage, and righteous deeds. The very practice of Islam is meant to purify the believer’s soul and to bring him/her closer to Allah. With regard to the second argument, Islam teaches no human being can bear the burden of another's responsibility.” (Ibid.)
“Those who say, ‘The Lord of Mercy has begotten a son,’ preach a monstrous falsehood, at which the very heavens might crack, the earth break asunder and the mountains crumble to dust. That they should ascribe a son to the Merciful, when it does not become Him to beget one!” (Qur’an 19:88)
a. Jesus is the Son of God:
1) Claimed by Jesus – Jno. 5:17-18.
2) Claimed & accepted the same honor as the Father – Jno. 5:23; 20:28.
3) Confessed by his apostles – Matt. 16:13-16.
4) Under threat of death for teaching it – Jno. 10:30-39.
5) Put to death for affirming it – Matt. 26:63-68.
2. Islam: Jesus was a prophet who promised to send Muhammad.
“And remember, Jesus the Son of Mary said, “O Children of Israel! I am the apostle of God (sent) to you, confirming the Law (which came) before me, and giving glad tidings of an Apostle to come after me, whose name is Ahmad” (Surah 61:6).
“Many Muslim commentaries on this verse will point out that ‘Ahmad,’ a name for Muhammad, means ‘praised one’ which in the Greek is translated into the word periclytos. In John 14:26, Jesus did promise the apostles that the parkleton or ‘Comforter’ would come and remind them of all that He taught. Thus, the Muslims claim the word was corrupted and originally read the ‘Praised one,’ namely, Muhammad.’” (Huffard, Firm Foundation, Jan., Feb. 1980, 103, cited by Needham)
a. Jesus sent the Comforter (Holy Spirit) to those He promised Him to – apostles (Jno. 16:13; Acts 1:8; 2:32-33).
b. God didn’t send someone who would deny the Son: “Whoever denies the Son does not have the Father either; he who acknowledges the Son has the Father also” (1 Jno. 2:23).
3. Islam: Jesus did not die by crucifixion.
-Believe Jesus escaped execution & later reappeared to his disciples without having died.
“They teach it was actually Judas who died on the cross” (10 Reasons Islam is not from God, Reiber).
“Qur’an 4:157. That they said (in boast), “We killed Christ Jesus The son of Mary, The apostle of Allah”; But they killed him not, Nor crucified him, But so it was made To appear to them, And those who differ Therein are full of doubts, With no (certain) knowledge, But only conjecture to follow, For of a surety, They killed him not.”
a. Jesus said he would be crucified – Jno. 12:32-33.
-How can Jesus be a prophet of Allah & be such a liar?!
b. The Bible clearly & plainly teaches that Jesus was crucified on the cross:
Then they crucified Him, and divided His garments, casting lots, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet: “They divided My garments among them, and for My clothing they cast lots.” (Matt. 27:35)
“…but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness…” (1 Cor. 1:23)
“…who Himself bore our sins in His own body on the tree…” (1 Pet. 2:24).
C. The Five Pillars of Faith (Duties: Spiritual, legal, societal, devotional – Placed on Muslims).
1. FAITH: The Testimony of Faith (Shahada).
a. “There is no God but Allah. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.”
b. To be said in Arabic to become Muslim.
c. Amounts to the basic creed of Islam; Muslims are duty-bound to recite this creed.
a. Christian confesses Christ in word and life every day – Rom. 10:9-10; Matt. 10:32.
b. No “creedal profession” defined and bound on Christians.
2. PRAYER: The Five Daily Prayers (Salat).
“Prayer is a duty incumbent on the faithful, to be conducted at the appointed hours.” (Qur’an 4:103)
“Once a person takes shahadah, he is a Muslim and is required to do five times a day prescribed prayers. In prayers a person addresses Allah directly without any intermediary or intercessor. Islam is the only religion in the world which has removed all kinds of intermediaries and intercessors between man and Allah.” (Introduction to Islamic Believes and Practices, StudyIslam.com)
a. Highly ritualized prayer; required 5 times a day – same prayer.
b. There is a cleansing (washing) that is to take place before prayer.
c. Certain prayer positions are to be assumed.
d. Call to prayer sounded from minaret of every mosque: “Allahu Akbar” (al-LAhu AKbar), “God is great” – punctuates all life, the reason to believe, the motive for action.
e. Face Mecca when praying (toward the Sacred Mosque, Qur’an 2:144). (Originally Jerusalem)
f. Friday is a holy day: Assemble at the mosque for prayer (Qur’an 62:9).
a. Not a display for men; without vain repetitions – Matt. 6:5-8.
b. No postures commanded; no washing required.
c. First day of the week for assembled worship (Acts 20:7).
d. Looking toward a place no longer part of true worship (2 Chrn. 6:21; Dan. 6:10; Jno. 4:21-24).
3. CHARITY: Zakat (“purity” & “alms-tax;” annual charity to poor & needy): Mandatory donation to charity. The righteous are those who “attend to their prayers, pay the alms-tax and firmly believe in the life to come.” (Qur’an 31:4)
a. One purifies his wealth by giving the Zakat.
b. Today in Islamic countries, the government collects the Zakat, & is considered a system of economic equalization.
“The obligation of Zakaat is mandatory on every Muslim who possesses the minimum Nisaab [Necessities of Life-NR], whether the person is man, woman, young, old sane or insane. Because the proof of Zakaat in Al-Qur’an and Sunnah is general and does not exclude young or insane. Allah (SWT) stated that: “Of their goods take alms so that thou mightiest purify and sanctify them...” (Al-Qur’an, 9:103) (Imam Ibn Hazim, The Five Pillars of Islam, Islam Unveiled)
c. “Many Muslims believe Islam and capitalism are incompatible.” (Reiber, The Five Pillars of Islam, Islam Unveiled)
a. Right to give to the poor “whenever you wish” – Mk. 14:7.
b. Not regulated by the state or the church: Freewill giving (Acts 2:44-45; 11:29).
c. Not to be seen – Matt. 6:1-4.
4. FASTING: Fasting during the month of Ramadan; Sawm.
a. Ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar (month in which first Koranic verses were revealed to Muhammad), and the month he had his first important military success (Battle of Badr in 624 AD).
“During Ramadan, Muslims are obliged to refrain from eating, smoking, drinking, and the pleasures of the flesh from first light to last light unless they are ill, traveling, nursing, or pregnant.” (Lippman, 19)
a. To afflict the soul; Abstinence from food to engage in concentrated spiritual activity &/or the result of contrition for and repentance of sin (Acts 9:9).
b. Fasting never viewed as an end in itself in the NT – Matt. 6:16-18.
c. No fast is required in the NT.
5. PILGRIMAGE: The Pilgrimage (hajj, once in lifetime for those who are able).
a. “Hajj is, in part, a memorial to the trials and tribulations of Prophet Abraham, his wife Hagar and his eldest son, Prophet Ishmael.”
b. “The Hajj lasts for five days from the 8th to 12th of Dhu al-Hijjah. Approximately two million people perform Hajj every year.” (Introduction to Islamic Believes and Practices, StudyIslam.com)
c. Pilgrimage to Mecca to what Muslims believe is the first place of worship on earth, the Kab’ah (chief shrine of Islam, stands in the courtyard of the Great Mosque at Mecca.
1) Kab’ah is a stone structure 40’ wide, 35’ long & 50’ high, usually covered with a cloth.
2) Muslims believe Abraham (Ibrahim) built the original Kab’ah & a house of worship on this site.
3) Inside the Kab’ah is a specific object of veneration, the Black Stone (8” diameter); believed to be the only remnant of the house of prayer built by Abraham; it is traditional for pilgrims to kiss it. (Probably a meteorite)
d. Hundreds of thousands of pilgrims perform the circumambulation of the Kab’ah, then journey to various places around Mecca for continuing rituals.
a. The Christian’s life of faith is a pilgrimage to heaven! 1 Pet. 2:11 (Heb. 11:13, 16)
b. Place is not a defining trait of true worship – Jno. 4:21, 24.
D. Carnal Tactics to Advance the Faith: Jihad (“struggle”).
1. Muslims deny that Islam spread by force & violence. History tells a different story: the sword ruled from Muhammad to the Sultans, with wars & civil wars advancing & consolidating Islamic power.
a. Last month (Mar05) an online website was launched to nominate Iraq’s top Shiite Muslim cleric for the Nobel Peace Prize:
“Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani ‘gave Muslims all around the globe a good example how to follow peaceful ways to resolve complex social (and) political challenges that face them, condemning terror and emphasizing…rule of law,’ the petition said.” (Skagit Valley Herald, C1, March 19, 2005)
b. While the vast majority of Muslims are not terrorists, there are violent segments of the Islamic faith such as Al Qaeda, Hamas & others. There are a number of passages in the Qur’an that advocate physical violence against unbelievers.
c. The denouncing of violence to advance Islam by non-militant Muslims indicates the division that exists in the Islamic world that has existed for centuries.
2. Jihad: What is it?
a. In Qur’an, jihad used to describe the personal struggle to purify one’s own nature:
“Surah 29:68-69, (Al-Ankabut) introduces the idea that the Muslim will encounter many who are practitioners of error, and it is their duty to be alert to error and not succumb to it.
29:68 And who does more wrong than he who invents a lie against God or rejects the Truth when it reaches Him? Is there not a home in Hell for those who reject Faith? 29:69 And those who strive (jihad, NR) in Our (Cause), We will certainly guide them to Our Paths: for verily God is with those who do right.” (The Truth about Jihad, Ney Reiber, IslamUnveiled.info)
b. Used to describe an intellectual struggle with unbelievers:
“In Surah 25:51-52 (Al-Furqan) Muslims are instructed to “struggle” against unbelievers with the Qur’an.
25:51 Had it been Our Will, We could have sent a warner to every center of population,
25:52 Therefore listen not to the Unbelievers, but strive (Jihad, NR) against them with the utmost strenuousness, with the (Qur’an).” (Ibid.)
c. “The most common use of Jihad in the Qur’an is to indicate literal warfare. But before we analyze this aspect of Jihad, it is important to understand what Muslims believe about evangelism by Christians. Evangelistic activity by Christians is considered aggression against Muslims and Islam.” (Ibid.)
“Surah 9:29, (At-Taubah) has definite instructions for Muslims to subdue even Christians and Jews, to make them acknowledge the authenticity and superiority of Islam, and to demonstrate that submission and acknowledgement by paying a tax called the Jizya.
9:29 Fight those who believe not in God nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by God and His apostle, nor acknowledge the religion of truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.” (Ibid.)
“9:123 “O you who believe, fight those of the unbelievers near you and let them see how harsh you can be. Know that Allah is with the righteous.” (Fakhry’s translation)
(This “revelation” was directed against those who were stirring up strife in the community by expressing doubt in Muhammad’s revelations; they needed to be silenced. –James M. Arlandson, Jihad, Originally published at americanthinker.com, this article was slightly edited for Answering Islam.)
3. The following comments & observations are from Tim Haile in The Battle Cry of the Qur’an:
“Many have said that Muslims are taught to fight only in self-defense. They are quick to quote the following from the Qur’an:
“And fight in the way of ALLAH against those who fight against you, but do not transgress. Surely, ALLAH loves not the transgressors.” (2:191)
“Though this particular verse does speak of defensive fighting, the remainder of the passage seems to extend beyond this. Notice the following:
“And slay these transgressors wherever you meet them and drive them out from where they have driven you out; for persecution is worst than slaying. And fight them not in and near the Sacred Mosque until they fight you therein. But if they fight you, then fight them. Such is the requital for the disbelievers.
“But if they desist, then surely, ALLAH is Most Forgiving, Merciful.
“And fight them until there is no persecution, and religion is professed only for ALLAH. But if they desist, then remember that no hostility is allowed except against the wrongdoers” (Qur’an 2:192-194).
“It is easy to see why Muslims are divided over the question of carnal militancy. This last verse tells followers to “fight until there is no persecution and religion is professed only for Allah.” This certainly appears to go well beyond mere self-defense.” (Haile)
a. God’s kingdom is not of this world – Jno. 18:36; Lk. 17:20-21.
b. God’s kingdom is not advanced by the sword – Matt. 26:51-52 (Isa. 2:3-4).
1. Only touched the hem of the garment of Islam.
2. Distorted, false concepts of God & Jesus; Extreme views of devotion to God.
3. Allah is not the God of the Bible; Muhammad was not a messenger from God, Muslims are not submitting to the true God.
Arlandson, James M., Jihad, Answering Islam, http://answering-islam.org.uk
Armanios, Febe, Islam: Sunnis and Shiites, Congressional Research Service
Haile, Tim, The Battle Cry of the Qur’an, http://biblebanner.com/articles/religion/islam/quran1.htm
Halbrook, Ron, The Final Prophet: Jesus Christ or Mohammed?, Truth Magazine, Nov. 7, 1992
_____ How to Become Muslim, http://nadeem.lightuponlight.com/howtobecomemuslim.html
Huffard, Everett W., Firm Foundation, Jan., Feb. 1980
Islamic Bulletin, The, “How to Become a Muslim,” (www.islamicbulletin.org)
IslamOnline.net, It Is Reported That The Prophet Said…,
IslamWorld.net, How to Become a Muslim
Lippman, Thomas W., Understanding Islam
Needham, James P., The Religion of Islam, Azalea Park Proclaimer (I:40-46, Sept 23-Nov. 4, 2001)
Reiber, Ney, Islamunveiled.info
A Brief History of Islam
The Five Pillars of Islam
The Truth about Jihad
10 Reasons Islam is not from God (www.bible.ca/islam/islam-is-not-from-god.htm)
Sakr, Ph.D., Ahmad H., Introducing Islam, The Institute of Islamic Information and Education
Skagit Valley Herald